The Russian – Chechen War in questions and answers by Alexander Krasnov
Military adventure in the Chechen Republic by the right constantly stays in the center of attention both Russian, and world community. Thus, as well as right at the beginning, and now, it still continues to remain unclear of the true purposes and tasks not only to a simple Russian inhabitant, but to also even many, most experienced in the Russian policy domestic and foreign analysts.
The new Caucasian campaign was accompanied on the part of its direct authors, direct executors and every, anyhow involved in it people, with a superfluous set of the most vast statements concerning the carrying out of military actions and an abundance of every possible justificatory attempts on acceptance and realization of a force variant of the solving the problem. However, the frankly propaganda character of statements of one people, unintelligibility of others and frank lie of the third, only aggravates our realistic understanding of the event. On themes about this “strange” war there are already thousand of publications, hundreds of analytical reviews, tens of authoritative, subjective and, unfortunately, extremely contradictory opinions. There is no the main thing so far, a unifying objective basis about the sources of this end of the ХХ century, having become already a historical one, conflict.
In the present publication, not applying for the true in the first instance, attempt of the system analysis of the event is made on the basis of processing the big data file, having the documentary confirmation, and also the new conceptual approach for the objective perception of the relationship of a cause and effect dynamic changes of the Chechen conflict is offered.
In the beginning some figures which better would not exist at all…
Ascertaining of the facts, events, and realities (for February, 1, 1996):
– More than 27000 Russian military men are killed (the data of the Society “Memorial” for January, 1996);
more than 100000 citizens of the Chechen Republic, from which about 40 % are Russians are killed (the generalized data of the commissions of the Government of the CHRI, investigating the crimes of the Russian militaries in the Chechen Republic, and the commissions of the pro Moscow Temporary government of Zavgaev – data for December, 1995);
-81000 wounded Russian soldiers and officers, 34 thousand of whom became invalids of the supreme groups (February, 1996);
About 400000 refugees – citizens of the Chechen Republic – Ichkeria of whom Russians make about 70000 (information interrogation, November, 1995);
The infrastructure of the Chechen Republic is destroyed, approximately, for 70 % (from the report of the state commission of the government of the Russian Federation, September, 1995);
– 90 % of cultural – historical values are either destroyed, or irrevocably lost or taken away (data of mass-media);
1638 insurgents – civil guardsmen and soldiers of the Military Forces of Ichkeria are lost (the data of the Head of the Main Headquarters of the Military Forces of CHRI Mashadov for January, 1996);
-18 thousand citizens of the CHRI among whom besides Chechens there were also Russians, and Ukrainians and people of other nationalities are beaten up and became invalids in tens of Russian filtration camps (the data of the head of mission of the Red Cross– Terry Merr and the organization “doctors without borders”, December, 1995);
-in military actions of the Russian party, the most up-to-date aircraft (more than 4000 plane-starts) were used, which applied bombs and rockets of the newest updating, the maximal capacity and destroying effect;
The Russian armies used the weapon forbidden by the international conventions: chemical shells, ball and needle bombs, the bombs of cassette type filled with chemical and biological destruction substances (all together 102 cases);
Barbarous means and methods of destruction of people were applied: flame throwers, napalm, “carpet” bombing, etc. (calculations have not been carried out);
Each new day and hour inevitably increases this sacrificial list of the tragedy!
Any sane person after having read these lines sooner or later should think: “My God, for the sake of what is all this?”
Really, for the sake of what is it? For the sake of what such supreme ideas, the reasonable causes and human values is it? Why is this idiotic massacre not stopped? Whether there are no other peace ways out, decisions? In fact daily Russian guys die in a piece of land, making only a thousand part of the territory of Russia. There are a lot of questions. And, it is very difficult to receive objective or, even, to find intelligible answers. But, it must be done first of all, because there is a terrible war today: the war which is not absolutely necessary to the peoples either of the Chechen Republic, or Russia: the war, about which all possible consequences we even can not guess.
So who is guilty in it then and how to stop it – that is, what usually torments all simple normal and conscientious people now. We know about many initiatives on the cease-fire, constantly shown by various public both statesmen and the organizations, but, nevertheless, it is not possible to stop the military actions in any way.
If it turns out to be impossible to stop the war, it means, that we do not know its true driving mechanisms, it means, that first of all it is necessary to search for the REAL REASONS, by which it was unleashed. Only precisely knowing the diagnosis of an illness, it is possible to treat it. The productive direction leading to the prompt required positive effect is seen in this and only in this now.
This search is the best to be begun with the analysis of the known versions.
So, the first version, concerning, ostensibly, that a stumbling-block of the sources of the conflict is “Chechen sovereignty”.
There is a rather ordinary myth that “the sovereignty of the Chechen Republic” was declared for the first time by Dudaev, because of what, actually, and all this conflict between Moscow and Groznyy began.
There are also other statements, similar by the meaning to this one.
Russian, and also the western inhabitants at the high enough official level are strenuously drummed, that Dudaev is the source of all the Russian troubles which are connected with his “separative actions destroying Russia”. He, ostensibly, is the initiator of all the centrifugal forces, and, it means, is almost “the main originator” of all the Russian difficulties and problems. If it had not been for Dudaev, Chechens would sit quietly and did not think about any independence even closely”.
However, let’s look at the valid chronological chain of events connected to these statements.
On the 12-th of June 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic accepted the Declaration “About the STATE SOVEREIGNTY of the RSFSR” in which for the first time it was widely promulgated about the rights of the colonial peoples of the USSR to the sovereignty and independence. And, though in the underlying reason of this Declaration Yeltsin’s tactical struggle for authority with Gorbachev, directed to undermining and easing of the allied Government also laid, nevertheless, it is a fact of common knowledge which now at all the desire of official Moscow, cannot in any way neither be concealed, nor denied, nor disavowed. According to the positions of this Declaration (the Preamble, and also the Parts 4-th and 5-th), the autonomous republics in due time violently having been attached to the RSFSR during the Soviet period, now were given wide rights, including, the declaration of the sovereignty and construction of the independent state formation. That is, actually, the right was given even to change the colonial status in the Russian empire called the USSR. It meant that the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR recognized the sovereignty of any nation which had wished it. Then some peoples and administrative-territorial regions of the RSFSR tried to take an advantage of this right. It is not necessary even to speak that such actions of the tandem Yeltsin – Khasbulatov were the same, as a balm on the covered with wounds soul of the adult population of Chechen-Ingushetia just having endured the horrors of Stalin deportation and bearing in the genes freedom-loving spirit of the three-hundred struggle of Vainahs for independence against “the Russian colonizers”, and also strongly politized as the result of “the Gorbachev’s thaw”. Therefore it is not surprising, that the management of this republic, certainly, first of all, from tactical reasons, both before the people, and before the direct RSFSR chiefs, undertook the following, rather courageous by those times and measures, step.
In strict conformity with the Yeltsin Declaration, legitimate for that period the Supreme legislature body of the Chechen-Ingush Independent Soviet Socialist Republic – Supreme Soviet of the CIASSR managed by the Chairman – the first secretary of the Chechen-Ingush republic committee of the CPSU, comrade Doku Zavgaev (!), on the 27-th of November, 1990 abolishes the status of the “autonomy”, “soviet” and “socialistic”, transforming Chechen-Ingushetia in a new state formation of the allied status – the Chechen-Ingush Republic and proclaims the Act “About the State Sovereignty of the Chechen-Ingush Republic”, authorized subsequently with the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR – the supreme Russian legislative and legitimate body of that time! (See “Vedomosti” ВС RSFSR – 1990, 1991) With these actions Zavgaev and his deputies of the SS of the CHRI headed by him won, on one hand, a huge respect among indigenous population of the republic, won the highest new Vainah authorities among the people. But, on the other hand, they were included in “the black list of a hawk environment” of Gorbachev.
For the sake of justice it is necessary to say, that the general of the Soviet Army, Dhzohar Dudaev, continued to have the state military service in one of the Baltic parts of strategic aircraft of the МD of the USSR at this time. He had visited the native land with a short-term visit just before this action as a delegate of the National Congress of Chechen People. This forum subsequently (1991) elected him the Chairman. For this reason the future President of the Chechen Republic – Ichkeria retired the MF of the SA, but having served about half-year, only in the next 1991.
Thus, we shall note two very important realities.
The first one is: the sanction to “the Chechen sovereignty” was given by nobody other, but YELTSIN and the Supreme Council of the RSFSR! The majority of Russians should remember it.
The second: the author of “the Chechen separatism” is Zavgaev. Russians also should know about it. (See. The bulletin “the Political landscape of Russia”, 1995, January, N.V.Petrov, “The Chechen crisis and the Russian statehood”)
That is where the true originators are! May be to prompt them, merely doubting, to follow the example of the known non-commissioned woman-officer?
Once again we shall emphasize: “that the Chechen sovereignty is legalized by Yeltsin and the SC of the RSFSR and Dudaev has no relation to it!” Certainly, questions arise at once here: “What is it? Incompetence of a semi-official organ, its elementary forgetfulness to what we have already got used enough, or a deliberate juggling of the facts to what the present Kremlin strenuously accustoms us to? If the last is true, to whom and what for it is necessary, what is standing behind it?” However let’s not hurry up yet, as we have not collected the sufficient invoice. One thing is clear, that only one these reasons could not provoke the war. Therefore, having questions in mind, we shall continue our researches.
Let’s try to answer to another, but a very much pressing question, which in the treatment brought below either practically, is not discussed, or in general, is bashfully held back in the Russian press. The essence of it can be formulated so: “Why Chechens aspire so persistently for independence, even by huge material and human losses when in the structure of Russia they would have lived as “at the Christ’s bosom”?
This question deserves, certainly, a multidimensional consideration. Here it is possible to speak both about history, and about the Chechen mentality, and about many another aspects, internally, certainly, inherent to this nation. But there are also some important applied moments which have remained unknown to the general public and consequently represent the basic interest. For their consideration we shall return to the further chronology and we shall note, that the legality of the above mentioned Act allowing the Chechen-Ingush Republic to raise its political status up to the level of a “union republic” in structure of the USSR, later is fixed by official recognitions of the Chairman of the SС of the RSFSR Yeltsin and the President of the USSR Gorbachev. (See “Reports of meetings on the preparations of the New – Ogarevo Agreements” 1991) The Chechen-Ingush republic alongside with other union republics was even determined as a “signer” of the new “Gorbachev” allied Contract which signing, according to the results of the all-Union referendum, was planned, as it is known, for August of 1991. However we know that his extremely right conservative environment named in people «hawks» for the aggression and propensity to force, dictatorial methods of ruling was very dissatisfied with the policy of Gorbachev “in the allied question”. Therefore, it is natural, that the acceptance with Chechnya of the “pro-Yeltsin” Act was met negatively by the “party of war”. It was decided at an allied level to punish the “rebellious Chechens” who had raised head again.
By then there was a sad experience of tragic events of Vilnius, the Tbilisi April, Baku January, etc. in the country. For several months the plan with the conditional code name “Migration” had been prepared in absolutely confidential conditions – the plan of “a partial resettlement of Chechens in other regions of the country”. (Materials of the investigation of the case of the State Committee of the State of Emergency (SCSE)) At the initial stage of this new forthcoming deportation of Chechens it was planned to move out about 70 % of “disloyal” population of the CIR. Unequivocally, shortly after “there would go” also the rest of 30 % of the “loyal” population. Such a blasphemous percentage definition of “the loyalty of the population” it is! Gorbachev, as always, “knew nothing”!?
It is natural, that the next genocide, russification and assimilation were prepared for the distressful nation. It is also for certain that already then the realization of the whole operation was planned by an armed, violent way with massed involving of the Military Forces of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. The ideological preparation of the conceived was begun at the end of 1990 with a set of articles in various mass media, but with the same handwriting and on the same theme: “About the preponderance of the Chechen mafia, the armed groupings, terrorists and gangsters”. For certain, something similar would have been formulated for the justification of the deportation in case of realization of these plans.
The given plan began its realization at the end of July – the beginning of August of 1991, just before the August putsch of the SCSE. Several hundreds of KamAZs and several tens thousand of soldiers of landing and other elite parts of the Soviet Army were overtaken to the republic and quartered almost in every settlement, ostensibly “for the organization of the help in harvesting farm products”. Since 1944 the republic had not seen such an amount of trucks and soldiers. Everybody was waiting for something. Probably, the final part of the plan of a loading of people and their transportation was planned to finish after the successful realization of the putsch.
Only Zavgaev was informed about the deportation, that is why, before the August events, according to the journal of acquaintance, very few people knew about it due to the working position: besides Zavgaev, Gromov – the second secretary of the ОК the CPSU (there was an institute of the second Russian secretaries in our country then), Мezhakov – the head of the KGB of the CIR and a cipher officer from the room № 606 of the former Zavgaev’s Republic Committee, consequently the Dudaev’s presidential palace, in which his people found then the corresponding encryptions among the not-destroyed party archives.
It is obvious, that such circumstances compelled Zavgaev whom, by the way, Dudaev’s supporters considered not unreasonably to be an assimilated nagayets(a small nationality in the Caucasus) in the Chechen Republic, to make one very hasty, rather hasty for such a circumspect figure, and as appeared subsequently, fatal step. On 19-th of August he documentary (!) confirmed support to the SCSE. Probably, the extreme eagerness to be justified for the last year’s “offence” or to toady to the “tops” let him down this time. The failure of the putsch signed an unconditional verdict to Zavgaev. The autumn invasion of “August heroes”, Khasbulatov, Rutskoy, Burbulis, Poltoranin and others in Groznyy led to the “self-dissolution of the IC of the CIR and official resignation of Zavgaev from all posts!
The legitimacy and irreversibility of these acts, obviously, should not have raised any doubts. Thus, one more rather steady myth is discredited, that “Dudaev overthrew the lawful government of Zavgaev”. Without political will of Moscow, without pressing of the Center it would not have taken place just so.
Certainly, the script of Muscovites obviously was not limited with this. Citizens of Chechen-Ingushetia “were supremely consecrated” for the new democratic elections; in the quality of “worthy candidates of democrats” the ready variant – tandem Arsanov-Aslahanov- was obligingly – perseveringly offered, people known at that time for the loyalty and fidelity, accordingly, to Yeltsin and Khasbulatov. However the further process of the events strongly deviated from the capital script. Vigorous general Dudaev together with the desperate team, having suddenly begun the struggle for the vacant authority, sufficiently legitimately changed the Moscow proteges and their high proteges.
And the plan of deportation, fortunately, failed then. And though, the soldiers “collective farmers” somehow silently and peacefully went out of the sight, everybody knew, that the plan of eviction was just frozen for future times, that it still could be useful to the Moscow managers at any convenient or “emergency” case as “it was possible to wait anything from these Chechen gangsters “.
The “Migration” was claimed very soon, in November, 1991, when according to the Yeltsin’s decree the state of emergency was declared and a military landing was thrown out in the Chechen Republic. As it is known, this next invention “to teach Chechens a good lesson” failed with a crash then. The Russian armies were captivated, disarmed, fed, put in comfortable buses and sent back… The mountain people always differed with nobleness.
The plan was “kept ready” also in autumn of 1992, during the so-called Ossetian-Ingush conflict, and actually – the next Russian pogrom and genocide of the Ingush population. Remembering the past, Yeltsin’s not yet strong enough regimes did not dare to carry out military aggression of Russia in the Chechen Republic then. This is one of the main reasons of leaving of E.Gaydar from the Yeltsin’s team. The “Pigeon” could not tolerate the “pecks of the hawks” for the weakness ostensibly shown by him in “the Chechen question”.
Dudaev and his surrounding who had found out about the plan of deportation of Chechen people since 1991, obviously, had no illusions of that sooner or later the Chechens, who did not have any wish to perish again in the Siberian open spaces, would have to meet the Russian power in unequal fight in which they would probably be lost, but, in the native land and with honor, than in a distance and in obscurity. That is why Dudaev did his best to entice actually the weapon at the garrisons quartered in the republic, and all the Russian soldiers were shown the door even in summer of 1992. Then it was the first post Soviet territory, 100 % abandoned by the Russian armies. Was not it the recognition of the sovereign Chechen Republic?
One of the answers to the question “Why did Dudaev and his surrounding turn out to be so uncompromising?” is hidden here. And in fact Moscow during three years monthly sent various messengers to Groznyy. Whoever tried to please the gaining in strength Yeltsin and “to bring Dudaev on a plate” to the Kremlin: from little-known Tsogolov and Arzhannikov up to Shahray with Abdulatipov, from Egorov and Zhirinovsky up to Ilyumzhinov with Shaposhnikov. Whatever promises were given! Anyone would have broken. Dudaev remained unshakable. Perhaps, he knew, that having conceded once, broken once and got under dependence of another, he would remain such for the rest of his life. Yeltsin has never begun the direct dialogue with Дудаевым! It characterizes the President of Russia, as a manipulating person, carrying out his activity through the mass of his intermediaries and informants. It is a style, in general, unacceptable for the head of a state. They knew about it in Groznyy as well.
The next year Yeltsin’s attention was abstracted by the struggle with Khasbulatov’s Supreme Soviet and the further strengthening of the authority after the October events of 1993. The plan of the Chechen deportation still waited for its hour while, at last, in the autumn of 1994 the air began to smell with a military thunder-storm.
Even in the summer, at the confidential interdepartmental meeting on the 25-th of August 1994 in Moscow (Yeltsin, Lobov, Grachev, Stepashin, Savostyanov – the deputy of Stepashin, Egorov, Еrin, etc.) the final decision on a violent overthrow of the President of the CHRI Dzhohar Dudaev is taken and the script of the restoration of “the Constitutional order in the Chechen Republic”, meaning in practice a new force conquest of the Chechen Republic, restoration of a ruling of a mother country in this distressful colonial territory. Deportation of Chechens at this meeting began to accept precisely designated forms and intentions. Carrying out of the whole operation was entrusted to the director of the Federal Intelligence Service in Moscow and the Moscow region Eugeniy Savostyanov, who failed it with a crash, loud scandal and even a negative world resonance in November, 26 1994, when military forces of Russia in a guise of, ostensibly, “the Chechen oppositional forces” in amount more than 4 thousand people, having about 170 units of armed techniques, with the support of aircraft intruded the capital of the Chechen Republic -Ichkeria, Groznyy, where they were completely defeated and found its disgraceful end. It is no wonder, that only week later, “without delay”, Savostyanov was dismissed according to the Yeltsin’s direct decree.
And, then, at the end of November – the beginning of December of 1994, several days prior to the large-scale military intrusion of the Russian armies into Ichkeria, the plan “Migration” almost word for word was repeated already in the infamous deportation documents of the new Russian government signed this time by V.Tchernomyrdin where the exile of Chechens pharisaical refers to as “the compelled evacuation”, and to the deported- the compelled refugees. (The Order of the Government of the Russian Federation №1887-r of 01.12.94; the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation №1360-p of 09.12.94) Whom with and how they “are compelled”: naturally about this not a single word in the documents. But bombs, rockets, shells and mines soon placed the points above “I”.
Thus, one more, the third and very important reality precisely comes to light. During all the last years of Yeltsin’s authority Chechen people were constantly under the threat of the realization of a new deportation.
That is where the sources of that proof aversion of Russia are. And how can it be accepted, if military actions had not begun yet, but already across all the Northern Caucasus began to arise, as mushrooms after a rain, the so-called filtration points, and actually camps – murderers of their purpose. In these, if one may say so, institutions which overcame with their fame the fascist torture chambers, the revived “three” undertook to carry out, as it was publicly and cynically explained, “the functions on revealing and neutralizations of gangsters”. As the result of it thousand of Chechens were crippled and exterminated, and not only they: many Russians and people of “the Caucasian nationality” suffered. And all this took place in a judicial – lawful state applying for the entering the Council of Europe at the eve of the 21-st century! Monstrously, differently you cannot name it…
If to the beginning of the operations in December, 11 1994, in the Chechen Republic someone probably also doubted of the admissibility of the idea about a new violent deportation of Chechens by the Russian “democratic” authorities, after the first massed bombardments and shelling from “Thunders” and “Hurricanes”, last most proof illusions on this account disappeared.
Let’s consider now the validity of one more, a rather widespread myth: “the Chechen Republic is an integral part of Russia (!?)”.
During the last two years, before and after the beginning of the war, no one of the authors or lawyers of such statements has made any attempt to explain it to us, which Russia they mean. Whether it is the Russian empire or Russia of the Rurikovichs of the last centuries, or the Soviet Empire (the USSR, the RSFSR), or, at last, the present state formation RUSSIAN FEDERATION? If to mean the period of the dynasty of the Romanovs, Russia should apply for the Transcaucasia first of all and something another, more solid, for example, Alaska! Why wasting time on trifles with some Chechnya. If the period of a dynasty of general secretaries is meant, there are again big “misunderstandings”. Who, else if not the present regime, denounced the Union of Councils? By the way, the both Dudaev and pre-Dudaev Chechen Republic had nothing against the USSR. It is an unbiased fact.
Perhaps, the RSFSR is meant in which in due time the Chechen Republic was violently included? In this case we should return again to the chronology of events. In March, 31 1992, the Federal Contract fixing, as a matter of fact, new colonial statuses of the Russian peoples, violently having been conquered in former years, and also declaring the new state formation which was named the Russian Federation – Russia, was signed in Moscow. Having achieved the basic purpose – the overthrow of Gorbachev- Yeltsin’s team now completely “forgets about the sovereign” and is gradually reoriented to the “undivided aspect”. Certainly, different times cause different problems. By the way, since the given moment the RSFSR stopped to exist. Thus there was a serious legal lapse. In Russia, as a rule, many laws are accepted without enough necessary legal expert estimation. The bright example is how without the due legitimate substantiation the President of the RSFSR has been in one stage replaced to the vacant armchair of the President of the Russian Federation! Actually, Yeltsin is the President of the abolished state of the RSFSR and he is the illegal executor of the duties of the President of the RF-RUSSIA. It is a fact difficult to be refuted. It is nonsense for a civilized society, but in Russia and for Russia everybody avoids punishment!
The Chechen Republic HAS not SIGNED this Federal Contract, which was named the “Khazbulatov’s” one! At that time Tatarstan and Bashkortostan refused to put also the signature “from among the obstinate”, though subsequently they did it.
The Chechen Republic DID NOT DELEGATE its representatives to the Supreme Council of the RF-RUSSIA.
Since April of 1992 the Russian Federation, de facto recognizing independence of the Chechen Republic, starts to carry out a number of measures, on financial, economic and political delimitation with the young Chechen state.
Since then the Chechen Republic DOES NOT PARTICIPATE in any in-Russian affairs. On the 26-th of May 1992, the Chechen Republic signed the intergovernmental Agreement with the authorities of Russia about the withdrawing of all the Russian armies from territory of the CHR and about the sharing of arms. By the 7-th of July of 1992, the last soldier of the Russian military forces had left the boarders of the Chechen Republic. It is the first territory of the former USSR and the countries of the “social camp”, where from the Russian armies had been completely withdrawn, de facto confirming the recognition by Russia the independent Chechen Republic!
In autumn of 1992, because of the extremely complicated conditions in the Northern Ossetia and Ingushetia, and also because of the military opposition of the Russian and Chechen military forces at the border of the republic, and to avoid such dangerous incidents and to put the base under the future interstate Contract, which already loomed at the horizon, the Parliament of the Chechen Republic and the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation carried on negotiations and signed the Report on bases of the Russian – Chechen relations, again de facto recognizing the Chechen Republic as an independent state. There was just a little left, to achieve the final signing of the Contract about the mutual recognition which already was in development, and to settle the interstate relations at the level of the Governments of two countries, having ratified the corresponding documents in the parliaments. Then, as it seemed, it was just a matter of time.
Though for that moment Moscow had not officially recognized the Chechen Republic as the subject of the international law, nevertheless, both de facto and de jure the Chechen Republic since then already was not in any way a part of the Russian Federation! About this now it is bashfully held back and they continue to hammer persistently: “The Chechen Republic wants to separate from Russia”.
By the way, in Ichkeria there is one, paradoxical at first sight, answer on this account: “the Chechen Republic and Chechens never declared, that they WANT TO SEPARATE FROM RUSSIA”! They did not do it for one very simple reason: Chechen people have never considered either themselves, or their territory, to be a part of Russia.
Really, is it possible to separate from something, not being the whole with it? It is impossible to leave something, not having entered it. It is an axiom.
During last centuries Russia was at war with the Chechen Republic, colonized, moved, frankly destroyed it…, but it could not make it “own”. The Chechen Republic always remained an “alien” and it remains the same now. Russia has never tried to speak with Chechens on equal rights, to cooperate on equal rights, to coexist, at last, in a good-neighborhood. Only now this understanding comes to some Russians, the initially incorrect approach was elected that in relation to the Chechen people, absolutely an unprofitable one, first of all for Russia.
Chechen people simply want to live INDEPENDENTLY! And this is their right. And for the sake of this, as we for certain know from the history, the Chechen nation has paid invaluable lives of millions compatriots living in this world and possibly of tens millions of those not given the birth who could not be born because of it. Well, and the Kremlin hawks and those who can not recede now for anything, are not appeased in any way. There is no end to the “arguments” put forward by them.
One of the most frequently meeting reasons is: “the Chechen Republic has not carried out the referendum about the independence”. This almost does not demand the comment. In lips of some people it sounds especially cynically when everybody remembers well enough how on the 8-th of December 1991, the will of peoples of the USSR was trampled, stated in the same year at the spring all-Union referendum for the benefit of preservation of the USSR. Then, as it is known, from 147 million of the Soviet citizens who took part in voting, about 112 million (76 %) voted positively.
The Russian army is at war with the Chechen people for the second year. In other words Chechen people assert the independence with the weapon in hands against the Russian army. It is more feasible, than a referendum!
Especially much is said, that: “With the loss of the Chechen Republic Russia collapses”. I wonder what they try to convince us in once again or even to intimidate. It turns out that the Chechen Republic is “the rod bearing basis” of Russia and determines the “stability of the Russian ship”. In this case it is necessary simply to transfer the capital of Russia from Moscow to Groznyy and to rename the country in the respective image. Whether Russia “hardly breathes” and even so, that the life and death of Russia depends on Hamlet’s “to be or to not be”? It is a mere delirium of the present semi-official organ to whom there is nobody to give the worthy rebuff.
Conducting of the prodigal war, expenditure of billions of national money, death of tens of thousand Russian guys, undermine just these foundations of “unstable” Russia.
“No” – other supporters of the indivisible are not appeased: “If we give the Chechen Republic independence, then the others will also want!”
First, in this statement, whether freely or not, the most secret wish of many peoples occupying the present Russia is given out, ready not to leave, but to run far away carelessly.
Second, to leave somebody’s dependence, to find freedom, TO BE INDEPENDENT is incorporated in us by the nature. At the boundary of the 21-st century when all over the world the imperial form of ruling practically leaves for nonexistence, conceding to the civilized democratic principles of mutual relations, to be released “from the Russian imperial oppression”, in other words from the centralized, ineffective in the modern world, simply archaic Moscow command dictatorship is wanted by many, if not every, even “primordially Russian territories”! It is very important to understand and to remember- they want to leave not Russia, but the DICTATORSHIP of the CENTER! The trouble is, on the one hand, that the Kremlin has not begun, contrary to its promises and expectations of the people, to rule in a new way, the Chechen Republic is a vivid example for that, and, on the other hand, there is no opportunity to struggle for the independence. It can not be achieved with peace means, it is an inaccessible dream. Let’s be truthful to ourselves: which else “the subject of the federation” can so furiously resist to the Russian army as it is done with the Chechen nation.
In the internal policy, carried out by the Yeltsin’s regime, a deeply erroneous one, regions will always clash with the Center. If the future President of Russia and his team do not change the form of the mutual relations of the Center with the regions resolutely, that is not to replace the servitude with an equal in rights horizontal partner cooperation; nothing will come out with the reforms at us.
And then, let’s recollect: “to whom, when and where there was an advantage of the “friendship” with Russia (USSR)?” For how many years have the countries of “the socialist camp” lagged behind in the development: Vietnam and Mozambique, Cuba and Bulgaria, Mongolia and Northern Korea, etc., etc. we can not cope properly with our territory here, and still we look somewhere far away. If it was not worse to live in Russia, than in Switzerland or Sweden who would want to leave?
Russia always was the country of unpredictable governors. Even if you feel good with one of them, it still does not mean at all, that at the arrival of the following one you will not regret deeply…
Thirdly, ponder, what it means we “shall give” or we “shall not give”? Only in Russia, not got used to live according to the LAW, but got used to live “by the will of HIM”, there can be such illegal formulations. The Russian people are tired of the self-bad desires of the tsars for a long time.
Fans of free interpretation of rules of the law should be reminded: the Status of the Chechen statehood is an exclusive prerogative of Chechens. No one, excuse, a Yakutat, an Ethiopian has a right to discuss the status of the Chechen Republic. Unfortunately, it can take place only in our state deprived of civil rights!
And, at last, the last persist again: “Look, Europe is united, and centrifugal processes are here… “. The strength supposedly is in unification. Pardon, which of them has disorganized the Union in Belovezhe, Dudaev? Basayev? Raduev?
Yes, it is united. But, it does so not to construct the Kremlin, the Mausoleum and a tribune on it in the middle of Europe and then for someone to order to all Europe, where, what and how to do. They unite in Councils, unite at equal, mutually advantageous conditions, and so, that in any case they can leave, having slapped the door. And our Federal Contract and mutual relations of the Center with regions is just a fraud if not to say it more abruptly.
The centralized dictatorship of Moscow which quite often turns out as a petty tyranny of the Kremlin, on which there has never been found an counteraction, and which, as we know it well from the Russian history, was stopped only by God, with taking away the life from the stupid one, but the foolishness, for some reason, has always remained on the Earth, obviously waiting for the next victim.
It is a pity, that our society still has not invented a vaccine against leadership, a cult of personality, “the unique a correct direction”, “the unique true way”, etc. Now again we have the “only candidate for presidents”. Our managers have no brakes at all! The governor of Russia always “ruled” so far as the Russian people allowed him to. And the Russian people are patient, allow and forgive much. And now we have allowed to bomb cities and villages. Only when we get rid of our illnesses, take the legal way, democratic mechanisms will begin to work in the society, and then, may be, the same Chechen Republic will knock on our door with confess…
How did the Chechen Republic found itself “in structure of Russia” again?
To answer this question, we shall start far with it; with that one “owner” has always ruled Russia. Any “multi-economy” was unacceptable for this country; it always brought misbalance, chaos and distemper. Having taken at the civilized West the “local” structural – circuit decision of the state system by the principle of “divisions of the authority”, they have absolutely ignored the fact, that the true OWNER in those countries is not the President at all, not the Prime minister and not the head of the Parliament, but the financial oligarchy, in a word, the Capital to which the first are just on serving! Such a Capital in Russia at the boundary of 1991-1992, naturally, was not yet. Therefore, inevitably, the repartition of the authority was coming. Beginning, approximately, from the end of 1992 the struggle between executive and representative branches of the authority of the Russian Federation, between the first persons and their deputies in these imperious institutes begins. It lasts till the known October events of 1993 when according to Yeltsin’s order tanks shot “the White House” and the legitimate Supreme Council of the Russian Federation in it. It is natural, that the process of arrangement of mutual relations between Russia and the Chechen Republic was suspended for this period.
After the illegal dispersal of the Russian Parliament, the executive authority of Russia and its Supreme governor considerably amplify and become stronger. The positions of “the party of war” also becomes stronger. The totalitarian period of ruling comes to Russia again. In general, the Regime has always ruled in the Kremlin. And each manager of the Kremlin, especially if he gravitated to totalitarianism, necessarily imposed to Russian people another, distinct from the previous one, “HIS CONSTITUTION”. Following this rule, Yeltsin by the example of the predecessors (Lenin, Stalin, Breznev, and Gorbachev) also works out a new, convenient for him and his new surrounding next Organic law of the country. The election campaign to the new Russian parliament and acceptance of the new Constitution takes place in haste, in record-breaking deadlines – only two months for preparation and carrying out.
In this hasty, the Yeltsin’s Constitution authorized on the 12-th of December of 1993 by the method of interrogation of citizens of the subjects of the Russian Federation, it was a priori brought in, that the Chechen Republic is a component of Russia!? The scandalous legal infringement having only one precedent in the world when Iraq, not asking Kuwaitis, also according to its strong-willed desire included Kuwait in his Constitution as a one of 19 Iraq territorial provinces. When on the 2-nd of August 1990, using this reason, with the slogan of the “restoration of the Constitutional order” – (an interesting analogy, is not it?!) – Iraq made a military attack to Kuwait and subsequently completely occupied it. All world rose on the protection of Kuwait and completely swept away Saddam Hussein’s compelling-justificatory thesis “About the territorial integrity of Iraq”, as absolutely not solvent! Russian people voted for the Constitution of the Russian Federation in which against will and desires of the Most Chechen People, the item was brought that the Chechen Republic “was included” into the structure of the RF-RUSSIA. This is a blasphemous fact.
If in the project of the new Constitution of the RF-RUSSIA it would have been brought, that, for example, Alaska too was a component of the Russian Federation, certainly, not asking about it the inhabitants of Alaska, the Russian voter of the sample of 1993, not understanding enough at that time the nuances of the legal electoral subtleties of the form of elections imposed to him, naturally and without hesitation could vote for this as well. Moreover, the absolute discomfiture took place with the electorate. “The citizens of the USSR” participated in the voting of 1993, that is in absolutely Russian affairs, that is people having in their hands only the passports of the nonexistent already country. Without the law on citizenship of the RF-RUSSIA, without the precise rules of law who was the Russian electorate; in the Russian embassy, for example, in Baku all the Russian-speaking voted, living in Azerbaijan, and also the Azerbaijani living in Birobidzhan, still not having defined their citizenship. Such a perverted “electoral system” was used by Yeltsin!
The Chechen Republic DID NOT PARTICIPATE in the all-Russian Referendum of the statement of the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993!
The Chechen Republic DID NOT PARTICIPATE in the elections of the Russian Parliament on the12-th of December 1993!
The Chechen Republic DID NOT DELEGATE the representatives to the supreme bodies of the authority of Russia!
There is no need, probably, to speak that the legitimate integrity of any state formation, consisting of subjects, should be proved with the reunified documentary confirmation from each of the subjects of the formation. To the disappointment of the Russian party, for the last 300-400 years of military conquest of the Chechen Republic, nobody found time to pay attention to these necessary formalities; neither the Romanovs, nor the Gen-secretaries!
So, official Moscow for December, 11 of 1994 did not HAVE ANY VOUCHER signed on behalf of the Chechen People, testifying that the Chechen Republic was part of Russia or its component to present to the citizens or the world community!
So, we shall highlight one more, a rather important, reality. The Chechen Republic got into the working Constitution of the RF-RUSSIA in the illegal way!
With this case the Chechen Republic now can easily address the International court and, for certain, will win it. The originators of “the constitutional lapse” and lawyers of the “indivisible” Russia can be shamed without ceremonies. With a high degree of probability the court can make the decision on legal incompetence accomplished. Well, then nothing else remains, except for to delete the Chechen Republic from the Constitution of the Russian Federation and this is the most correct, or in any way annoyingly to try to drag it into the structure of Russia.
During the whole 1994 Moscow, which always ignored the international opinion, obstinately followed this second variant and tried these “any ways”. Basically, the rate was made on the discredit of the ruling of Dudaev, on quislings, on cultivation of collaborators from the Dudaev “opposition”, on a sabotage-blasting and terrorist activity, a call of discontent of the population and much of the same kind. To the great misfortune of Russia, the worst of all the possible continuation was chosen in autumn, which was the MILITARY –FORCE one. Thus, Yeltsin’s regime had once again proved to the world, that not only scandalous legal infringements were made in Russia, but also the substitution of rules of the law of a society “by the RIGHT of the STRONGEST” was legalized.
This last, tragic for Chechens step, official Moscow accompanied with the next broadcasting myth: “About having no other, except for the force way of the decision of the conflict”.
Really, whether Yeltsin wanted to solve the problem peacefully, amicably?
I can really testify, as a participant of several negotiating processes and special missions in Groznyy, that in this question “he met his match”. Yeltsin was fenced off from different directions by the board: “The Chechen Republic is our, Russian” and Dudaev was “throwing stones and kicked fences”: “No, it is not yours! I can prove this”. Dudaev could not manage to punch the “fence”, however much he tried to, and Yeltsin did not want to hear any “proofs”. The barriers could have fallen only in one case if Dudaev named the treasured for Moscow password: “Yours, yours!” Yeltsin has not waited for this. This is one. But there was also another one. Yeltsin obstinately did not go to a dialogue. he operated through minor and insignificant people which, as a rule, promised to Yeltsin to over persuade Dudaev and his team, to return not so much “the lost”, as much “the Moscow ruling in the Chechen Republic” to Russia. Egorov became the Minister on affairs of nationalities, having assured Yeltsin, that at this post he “would solve the Chechen problem, after “Shahray’s” failures. Who knows, if the direct dialogue took place between them, instead of “the spoiled phone”, may be, they could have come to anything, at least, may be, this war would not be.
The analysis of the pre-war positions of each of the parties shows, that at both of them, they were firm enough and uncompromising. But, let’s look, when, under what circumstances these “concessions” took place. One of the parties can meet another one only in case that it sees or is convinced, that can in case of obstinacy to lose more, than to get. What could personally Dudaev and his team lose? The greatest was, certainly, the lives and lives of their fellow citizens. Let’s put aside the favorite for some people phraseology: “Fanaticism, moral substance”, etc., as not the main, not determining, in this case. The reality was that the plan “Migration” as the “Sword of Damocles” was hanging above Chechnya which sooner or later should have been carried out. So, Dudaev did not have a big choice. If he had signed any “compensation”, it would have been his not only political but physical death as well. His people would not forgive him what had never happened for the last 300-400 years. And, on the other hand, he relied, apparently, on the knowledge of the forces, on sufficiency of the potential of resistance… Chechens had a firm confidence of their resistance in any extreme situations and there was, at last, a hope for the sober objective approach of Moscow. Perhaps, the only one, but the most fatal miscalculation of the Chechen party was just here. Now it became obvious to everybody. One more thing is clear now, whatever guided Yeltsin then, as he had made the decision “to be at war with the Chechen Republic”, the PRESIDENT of RUSSIA DID NOT OWN THE REAL SITUATION! “Courtiers” let him down this time as never before.
So, the war began.
Many people are inclined to see around this war a certain relationship of cause and effect, one logic scope, inevitability, even planning all the events from the beginning up to the end. This is, certainly, a big error. Any constant purposes and tasks explaining all and everything, naturally, do not exist. Each time the Russian party had new tactical purposes, specific targets were put, and united logic coordination could not be. All of us are witnesses of a set of plans, stages, promises, and assurances and so on, which have safely sunk into the oblivion, without having come true. There was the truth, the unique installation – TO SUBDUE. The present Kremlin does not descend from it until now.
There were CALCULATIONS and MISCALCULATIONS in this way!
The first calculation was of a psychological character. The huge amount of armies in Mozdok, ready to rush into fight, a lot of arms, armed techniques, fighting flights of planes above Chechnya and frightening bombing – all this and many other things together with the Yeltsin’s ultimatum about the immediate surrendering, should have, ostensibly, “frightened” the Chechen people, Dudaev and his surrounding to break the spirit of resistance and to prepare the corresponding ground and moral atmosphere for a victorious movement of the Russian armies in the ways of restoration of the “constitutional order”. It turned out, that “the Chechen Republic can not be taken with a fright”. The military ultimatum was accepted, they were ready for it. And it was the first miscalculation. But it was impossible already to recede for Yeltsin; the military machine was twirled irrevocably.
Predictably, Chechens rendered the desperate armed resistance to the “aggressors” and the Russian army had and continues to have huge losses. Right were those who had warned the official Kremlin of the force approach in the Chechen question. Forecasts were also justified of those who declared, that it would not be possible to achieve a lightning victory, as the army would be resisted with armed people, and a long war is fraught with guerrilla movement and sabotage campaigns, which did not promise anything good to Russia.
From three large military campaigns which were carried out in the past by Russia against the Chechen Republic, it is seen, that Chechens receded or “made a peace agreements” only when their number became less than two hundred thousand. To achieve the required lightning victory in this war, it was necessary to destroy about 70-80 % of the Chechen population, and it demanded, at least, the absolute closeness of the region and the full control over mass media. The supreme political management of Russia, basically, was ready to such a turn of events, about what the interrogations of the captivated with the Dudaev’s supporters Russian officers said, but it had failed the conceived.
On the other hand, the Russian army went to a POGROM. It turned out to be morally unready to meet instead of expected animal fear of the victims as it had been before in every other “hot points”, the firm spirit and courage of the resisting civil guardsmen. The calculation on privacy of the course of the operation, on the secret of the actions of the Russian armies in the Chechen Republic was not justified, did not work. The information blockade was broken through first with, basically, foreign, and subsequently with the Russian journalists. Even a shy attempt of the “aces” to show themselves in Samashki was given an instant negative world reaction. The failed blitzkrieg grew into a long guerrilla-retaliatory opposition. The last year has brought the following unpleasant arithmetic figures to us: to one killed Dudaev’s guerrilla there were up to 15 Russian chastisers and up to 45 (!) peace inhabitants of the Chechen Republic. So in order to execute the task in view – “to liquidate all the armed Chechen gangsters”, it was necessary for the Russian armies to destroy, approximately, 850 thousand peace Chechens. Even, if to kill one thousand day of them, the genocide of the Chechen people will take about three years. To execute these tasks, as the statistics predicted, Russia should have destroyed 200-250 thousand of Russian soldiers. If it had not been so, the Chechen Republic would have been subdued within a month!
The following tactical calculation of the Russian command in the Chechen Republic was constructed on the confidence, that in case of force frightening rabble-rousing influence on the civilians of the republic, this population would rise and sweep away Dudaev with his insurgents together with the Chechen civil guardsmen. Military researchers know that usually no more than 2 % of the population voluntary undertakes the weapon. In Russia even during internal conflicts or civil wars no more than 7 % of the population participated in it. If there are 10 or let it be 20 thousand of insurgents and civil guardsmen in the Chechen Republic what is improbable, that is the maximum of the possible. It means that the rest of the population is neutral in the active military relation. It hardly can be arisen to the actions with ideological, fanatical, well armed, trained Dudaev’s fighters. Even if to distribute the weapon to the “neutrals” they, most likely, will give it to Basaev’s people or Raduev’s ones, or can be at once turned against the Russian soldiers! Those, who are potentially capable to undertake the weapon, have already practically undertaken it for a long time. And the ratio here was not in the Russian advantage. 200 or even 300 “the Chechen militiamen” do not change anything, even each having a FSB worker behind him. The hopes on elders, family authorities which, ostensibly, can influence the insurgents, were absolutely insolvent. It is possible to shake the air with conciliatory achievements practically in every settlement of the Chechen Republic as much as possible for a long time, but it is, at the best, self-deception.
Even Yermolov having burnt on the same in the last century hinted on Chechen “bribability and craftiness” when the matter concerned their arrangements with Russian officers. As far as the Russian armies are in the Chechen Republic, as far as there is “an external enemy” for Chechens, so far the INTRACHECHEN CIVIL WAR is IMPOSSIBLE! And, how about that “…If we leave, and they will cut each other, you see…” The President dissembles! May be, they will cut somebody, may be not. It is difficult to say. Just we do not have trust to such a “care”. It is obvious, that the Kremlin fondly considers, merely doubting, so to say, that rocket and artillery bombardments are the essence of the more humane tools of killing, than the daggers of the mountain people?!
One of the main calculations of the planning of the Chechen operation was constructed on the organization of a circular blockade of the republic with the purpose of blocking any possible help from outside. The miscalculation here turned out to be the most unexpected and rather sensitive. It was amazing, but any real military help from abroad had not arrived to Ichkeria! “Thousands of foreign mercenaries and the armed deliveries” was the most primitive of all the myths, which had ever started into an orbit. The Russian journalists, walking where “Barsukov has not walked” are perfectly informed on two – three tens of “not Chechens”, volunteers struggling on the party of Dudaev, and, the majority of them even are known. That humanitarian help which came for the Chechen Republic by the Red Cross and other organizations, practically all fell into in hands of the Russian frontier guards, soldiers, various officials and then appeared in the local markets, what, in general, says about the effectiveness of the blockade.
The most terrible was that the organized deliveries of arms for Chechens were engaged…with the Russian army (!?) on behalf of its senior officers and even generals. Bribability of military men brings to nothing all the efforts and all the victims suffered by Russia in this war. It is interesting to note the fact, that to the Chechen party it is much cheaper “to buy the well-known Russian weapon from a Russian soldier or an officer, than to deliver the same from abroad, even granted”. This defect, totally captured the Russian army at Yeltsin, was necessary to be struggled, instead of to be ignored. Thus it is necessary to notice, that this army is only a display of our society. We are such, and also our soldiers and officers are such. In the monstrously corrupted and criminal Yeltsin’s government bribability and immorality of the Grachev’s wards does not cause any surprise, especially on the background of those who has voluntary left the Ministry of Defense as a token of the protest against “the Chechen policy”. It is a pity, that fair officers in Russia have remained so few.
Then another thing causes surprise: “Where does the Dudaev’s party have so much money? Have they really stolen so much for three years that can be at war with Russia for several years?” At once “the petrodollars stolen with Dudaev” come to mind.
For years of the independent “gangster” ruling in the Chechen republic a little more than 6 million tons of own oil was extracted, and, it is well-known, that up to 80 % of this oil were spent for internal needs of the republic: mineral oil for the thermal power station, gasoline for motor transport, re-investments into the petroleum industry, overcoming of the blockade difficulties, etc.
Still, approximately, 2 million tons of it was advanced in Groznyy factories of the Russian oil. Any seller of this Russian oil till now has not sued for even one dollar for “the stolen with Dudaev oil”. First, if each ton of the Russian oil has been paid to the Russian supplier wholly and by the export prices, if the bought according to the Russian laws becomes the property with all the following circumstances, how is it possible to speak about larceny?
Second, as it was seen from the documents, which got at the disposal of the federal authorities, from January of 1992 till June of 1994, Dudaev’s government for the sale of mineral oil obtained in recalculation on currency only about 87 million dollars. In the same documents it was shown, what they had been spent on even before the war. And, where the valid Russian billions “petrodollars”, it is a theme of another conversation. And it will be by all means! So far it turns out, that the true thief uses a known reception: “Hold the thief!” pointing to the Chechen side.
But, where do the insurgents take the big money from? Here interesting facts are opened. It’s turned out, that any pro-Moscow temporary government made, as usual, of deputies in the Chechen Republic, let it be Hadzhiev, Semenov, Avturhanov, Lobov, Zavgaev, Magomadov or any other, all of them sooner or later enter the private arrangement with the Dudaev’s party that for their inviolability they “give a piece from a big Russian pie” as billions and billions of dollars, given by Moscow with any various reasons for “the restoration of the Chechen Republic”. At Hadzhiev, they say, the distribution was such: 40 %- to Moscow “sponsors”, 30 % – to the insurgents and already the rest 30 % – to the Moscow puppets. They assert that Zavgaev promised to the Dudaev supporters to lift “their share” up to 40 %, and it was the reason of the hasty leaving of Hadzhiev and his teams.
Disobedience is excluded! This war had its own laws. An assassination of “an unknown origin” is organized at any slightest obstinacy. Certainly, all details and subtleties can not be found out, though the Chechen Republic is not the East, but one, anyway, is absolutely clear. Russia continues to feed, to give water, to dress all the Chechen Republic on its own money from an oppositionist up to an insurgent, from a parasite up to a true gangster. Russia on its own money delivers the weapon to the military opponent!? Russia kills and buries Russian guys on the money which has been taken away from Russian people.
By the way, the Chechen “opposition” which was made of a former creature of the KGB, in general, one of the guilty of this war also had its calculations. Besides the natural expectation, that Russia will cope with Dudaev’s supporters for several days, it was supposed, that the actions of the Russian armies against the peace population will be light and with insignificant destructions… That they will silently and easily sit in desired imperious and “grain” armchairs with our help. In the republic where even in one family frequently meet “Dudaev’s” and “anti-Dudaev’s”, where those and others are related with teip connections, where any external aggression instantly unites the both parties, such miscalculation, certainly, is disastrous for everyone who promoted the input of the Russian armies and actively cooperated with the “executioner” of Chechen people.
In case of withdrawing of our army from the Chechen Republic, there will be 300-350 people, hardly more. Russia quite could have sheltered this temporal “partita” what would cost millions times cheaper, than the losses in this shameful war. But it does not happen, and it means, that the matter is far from opposition and false concern with the “massacre” consequences.
As far as mass media is concerned, there is not a simple miscalculation but a complete failure there. The semi-official organ has lost already any control over the statements. One Kremlin official contradicts another one. The morning information denies yesterday’s, evening – morning’s, and at the same time yesterday’s as well. It happens so, when they even cannot tell lies. Laymen prepare “misinformation”, laymen are at war, laymen order about and laymen operate. What do we have to listen to: houses impede in a city, trees – in a wood, mountains – in mountains. We do not have this, we do not have that”. No professionalism became the main distinctive characteristic of the Yeltsin’s regime. And under these conditions, the untalented lawyers of the war do not find anything the best than again to pull about the worn out myths like: “The Chechen Republic was the territory of transit of drugs, the weapon… “.
It is obviously designed for the incompetence of an inhabitant. What weapon, of whose manufacture? If of the Russian one why does it need to be sold through the Chechen Republic? Russia quite legally participates in all exhibitions and special actions in the world where it can realize the production lawfully. All Russian export operations on weapons are actively supervised by the western countries. If Russia needs to sell the weapon illegally to the “hot points”, than it is not a secret how it is done. “The third country” as which Iran more often acts, successfully copes with the mission assigned to it. The Chechen Republic physically cannot do so. It is absurd to say also, that Russia can buy the weapon from someone. There is no place to put its own one. And the situation with money is not good so much. Has anybody seen even one import patron at a Russian soldier, let’s leave alone the automatic device M-16? No. What kind of transit then? Between some other countries may be? Then in what way, with what transport do they do it? There is no sea, and you will not be able to bring it with a truck.
However, for the sake of objectivity, except for two flights in 1992 from the Chechen Republic to Abkhazia of two АН-2, loaded with “Kalashnikovs” and “zincs”, and “mountain confederates” led by Basaev at whom Russia then looked whether quietly, or approving, allowing the planes to land without problems in intermediate air stations in Kabarda and Adygea, what flights can be else spoken about… There is no technical opportunity to accept powerful cargo planes. Airports “Northern”, “Hankala”, “Kalinovskiy” are not adapted for this purpose. And any plane with such a mission is easily calculated and it is possible always to force it to land. Something does not match. For this purpose it is necessary to have your military air dispatchers on all the line. They are only in Russia and submit only to Grachev. So, if somebody needs “stingers” or a heroin, welcome. The flights are adjusted in the Ministry of Defense. Just pay. Talibs till now keep our plane making illegal military deliveries for one of the Afghani groupings.
And the last achievement of “the Kremlin thoughts”, having been given out recently, is as following: Dudaev collected mountains of weapon and was going, having won the Northern Caucasus, to expand Ichkeria from one sea to the other one”.
Such myths, certainly, are composed only with those who are sick of aggressive campaigns. Imagine, it is nearby to be declared, that Dudaev planned the capture of Moscow, and at the same time the Volga-Don channel to cut, naturally, poor mother – Russia off from these two seas! However, hints on it are already made… Why, it is clear too.
In any research time comes when it is necessary, as they say, “to count money”. We shall also try to do it.
So, what, ostensibly, our authorities wanted to achieved and what do they have in practice?
The first: to disarm the illegal armed formations”. Actually they have equipped and continue to equip with the newest weapon not only the Chechen civil guardsmen, but also all the North Caucasian region, especially Dagestan. They have created steady, criminal, uncontrollable, omnipotent structures of the concealed manufacturing of the weapon at the Russian factories and its illegal sale in the territory of Russia! Having spent on aimless needs tens thousand tons of ammunition, having ruined more than 2000 (!) units of armed techniques, several tens of rather expensive helicopters and planes, they have only weakened the potential of the Russian army. Huge losses of staff, moral decay of military men, the return from the army of an extremely dangerous to the society “degrading executioner”-of the potential criminal and murderer, and also many other negative things…
The second: “to restore the constitutional order”. We have the uttermost arbitrariness… Present power structures cannot make the elementary order not only in the Chechen Republic, but in Russia, in Moscow. Russian people are strenuously accustomed and, as it seems, have successfully been accustomed to live in conditions of lawlessness, permissiveness, constant fear, helplessness, hopelessness; in conditions when your life costs pennies, and may be even it does not; in the situation in which if you want to survive, you should accept “the criminal rules of a game”, that is the laws of the underworld. Yeltsin’s regime simply does not leave anything else.
The third: “to stop the criminal activity of bands”. They have created steady criminal groups and structures in the parts of the Russian army in the Chechen Republic. Robberies and marauding have become the habitual “norm of life” of Russian military men. It is not a secret, that the stolen in the Chechen auls after the so-called “zachistka” (“cleaning”) is openly realized in the Stavropol territory and the Rostov region right from the platforms of trains or trucks. The frequent change of military divisions promotes only the increase in number of “fans of trophies” and the replaced continue to search for the similar “easy money” already in Russia.
The fourth: “to restore the stability and transport arteries in the Northern Caucasus”. They have achieved the unknown chaos and ruin, comparable only with the consequences of the civil war of 1918-1919. The normal turnover of goods with the republics of Trans Caucasus, Turkey, Iran, etc. is broken. They have frightened potential western investors. Fertile areas of the Northern Caucasus have lost multi-billion credits, are rejected in the development for some years. Steady interethnic disgust is sown about, especially in relation to Russians.
The fifth: “we operated according to the law”. What legality can be spoken about, when the Russian armies intruded the Chechen Republic against the Constitution!? What else can be spoken about, if the so-called Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation backdating legalizes Yeltsin’s lawlessness!? It was estimated as the top of impudence when Zavgaev, this changeable “half-blooded” was pulled out from “the Kremlin’s naphthalene box” and proclaimed with pomp “the head of Chechnya”. It is natural, that cannot cause anything except for idiosyncrasy at Chechen people. The “legality” of the filtration camps became the talk of the world. Yeltsin has legalized for the Russian army the right to kill without court and investigation. Now methods of the state terror are fulfilled in the Chechen Republic and on the Chechen Republic which with a high probability will be soon applied to the whole Russia.
The sixth: “to prevent atrocities and the massacre conceived by the Dudaev’s regime”. They have carried out and continue to carry out a severe genocide, ethnocide and ecocide in the Northern Caucasus.
Look, despite of all this the war does not stop; despite of the powerful anti-war movement in the country; despite of the resolute protest of intelligencia. And obstinately continuing the criminal war, Yeltsin’s regime tries to distract the attention of the Russian public by all means, to deceive it. The new myth that ostensibly “the whole groups of settlements of the Chechen Republic sign peace contracts with “federals”” has begun. Vigorous TV reports of Zavgaev for whom the Russian soldiers in December of 1995 voted, informs us, how many villages “have already turned away from Dudaev” (50 of 350, March of 1996). It means, that earlier all of them, 350, were revolved to him, i.e., it comes out, that Dudaev had national support?! Something does not match here with other statements of the kind like: “People of the Chechen Republic want to be in the structure of Russia, and the Dudaev’s regime prevents them to”.
And all this is after bombardments and “storm” shooting? When they put the only ultimatum forward to you putting a barrel of the automatic device to your head: either sign the contract, or “zachistka” with everything following… Or receive bombs, shells and mines. “The Russian democracy”! It allows, you, you see, to make a choice.
The analysis of the myths which were born before the Russian military intrusion into the Chechen Republic, shows, that Yeltsin’s regime had the purpose to discredit, defame and discredit the Chechen party, hoping, thus, to justify and hide its own criminal actions in the opinion of the public. However, to say only this means to say nothing. Therefore it is necessary to estimate actions of the Yeltsin’s regime in the Chechen war:
The purposes and tasks – immoral;
Means and methods of execution- criminal;
Results – negative;
Situation – desperately lost;
Whether the Kremlin knows about it? Be absolutely quiet –it does. But it does not surrender. It invents new excessive tasks, puts the new unreal purposes. The big forces are used for it. Any tasks put in the past failed. The present tactics of the Kremlin is nothing different but an attempt of a drowning to seize illusive straws! Yeltsin does not have a prospect; he will have no victory as well.
Why? We shall answer this question, but in the beginning we shall formulate the ripened conclusions – axioms of this war. These are the main facts:
– Yeltsin’s regime wanted TO SUBDUE the Chechen Republic in the military way;
– Yeltsin’s regime CAN not CARRY OUT this CONQUEST for the second year;
– Yeltsin’s regime TESTS strong enough ANTI-WAR PRESSURE on the part of the public of Russia;
– Yeltsin’s regime IGNORES this OPINION of Russian PEOPLE;
– Yeltsin’s regime does not lose hope and CONTINUES THE CONQUEST of the Chechen Republic;
– Yeltsin’s regime, continuing this war, RISKS LOSING AUTHORITY.
From here the main conclusion unequivocally arises:
“War is necessary for Yeltsin. War will proceed at any cost. War will be while Yeltsin is at the authority”.
What can be hidden behind it? It is a difficult question, but not hopeless.
What is Yeltsin’s personal character? It is quite allowable; that his well-known propensity in the childhood and after to hooligan and frankly criminal acts has not disappeared in Yeltsin at the post of the President of Russia: criminal Belovezhskie agreements of 1991; genocide of Ingush people of 1992; unprecedented execution of “the White house” in 1993, war in the Chechen Republic and genocide of Chechen and Russian peoples 1994-1996 – it is not the full list of penal acts and criminal Yeltsin’s regime. Blood accompanies with all his biography. The fact is known, when being the first secretary of the Sverdlovsk regional Committee of the CPSU in one of regional colonies prisoners “were striking”. Yeltsin gave the instruction “to knock the prisoners down”. The order was executed with the help of tanks – in result more than a thousand victims.
But, this is not the main thing. Yeltsin’s restive character is only a basis. The condition, as they say, is necessary, but insufficient. The answer to the question can be only one – there is a powerful pressure upon Yeltsin and his regime is simply compelled to act so, instead of differently!
We shall notice the following before to understand this aspect. It is necessary to remember firmly, that never any people began any war. All the world conflicts are initiated by PERSONS by virtue of various reasons or circumstances. These persons involved to some extent, from that and other party, are ALWAYS GUILTY. Thus ALL guilty persons are far from being ALWAYS known or in sight. Very much frequently they are minor and imperceptible people from the surrounding of the “mightiest of this world”, whom they usually use for realization of especially mercenary purposes.So who has begun the war? Who is pressing HIM? May be Dudaev with Grachev? It is too elementary! Yes, certainly, in various times around Yeltsin and, it is rather symptomatic, there was a set of “hawks, candidates and members of the party of war”: Shahray, Kozyrev, Lobov, Egorov, Erin, Barsukov, Korzhakov, Baturin, Stepashin and others. Probably, all of them to some extent influenced Yeltsin. But there was also a reverse influence. The employees always try to be such as HE wants to see them. Yeltsin’s love of power and his insistence to humility of the subordinates have made, certainly, much negative, but here we shall not find the answer. Relations are much more confusing and complicated than it can seem at first sight.
Let’s admit, there is, say, a Security Council behind Grachev. There is Yeltsin behind the SS, behind Yeltsin, let’s admit Korzhakov. Behind Korzhakov there is “the powerful oil of this world”: “LUKOIL”, “Transneft” and others. Does not it seem to you that we are just about to catch the guilty for a hand, pull him out and publicly punish and it will be the end of all the troubles. No. It is far from it. Even, if to change the Russian oil tycoons every day, the vector of their interests all the same will be defined abroad. Behind the exporters of the Russian oil and mineral oil there are already dim persons from the western importers of the Russian raw material – sharks of global business. Behind these structures anonymous monetary aces of the international financial oligarchy hide. At the end of these lines, we can guess only already, those who defines the political-economical weather on the Earth, those who with a huge PRESSURE of their HUGE CAPITALS, force to work the mechanisms on pumping out the Russian natural resources, who needs weak raw Russia, who establishes now on the planet the so-called “The New Global Order”, who has given Russia the place of the European stepson. This is where the deep reasons of the Chechen war are and it does not even smell of any Russian national interests here. Here is just their voluntary or involuntary TREACHERY.
The PRESSURE comes to us from abroad, and it is capable to render the certain influence inside Russia! Means, operating from there with the PRESSURE, it is possible to regulate and supervise the SITUATION here!
Thus, we have the MONSTROUS FINAL CONCLUSION: YELTSIN’S REGIME IS CONTROLLED FROM OUTSIDE RUSSIA!!
Yes, now it is known for certain, that the most important internal reason of the given war is Russian Oil Mafia (RОМА) which basic representatives are “LUKOIL” and “Transneft”. ROMA was that last drop which initiates the ripened process. The Russian oil aces prepared “key” and “accessible to the body” from Yeltsin’s team during all 1994, tried to take advantage of any opportunity: Shahray and Filatov, Baturin and Pain, Ilyushin and Ryurikov…
Today we can name the main “lobbyists” of the RОМA: Soskovets and Korzhakov. These initiatives did not remain unnoticed for the Chechen party as well. The service of external intelligence of Dudaev – “ZAZA” – traced many “movements” in Moscow. Representatives of Dudaev went, literally, after the ROMA, met the same “top-people”, up to Tchernomyrdin, tried to bring to reason, over persuade. Already literally before the war negotiations with Luzhkov, Korzhakov took place… I had once to witness casually how Udugov explained by phone to Alexander Korzhakov that Moscow was making irreparable erroneous steps, how hinted on ROMA, how warned and suggested…, but, unfortunately, whether Alexander did not understand, whether he did not want to understand.
The West has again deceived Russia. The executive authority cannot admit, that the efficiency of reforms is rather low, that the West has won five – six more years in economic and scientific and technical development than Russia; that the financial servitude of Russia has increased, that economic prosperity “in half-year later” has failed. It is especially insulting for Russians, whose dreams on democratic updating of a society, on increase in well-being and growth of spirituality of the society have hopelessly vanished.
Russia with its natural resources is compelled to fill with the powerful contents of the dollar. While it DOES IT, Yeltsin and his present surrounding is necessary for it! Monetary tips of the West to Russia are its money returned to it due to the gratuitous export of the Russian natural values! Such nonsense!
Those who are far away from the Kremlin made the first persons in the country to declare loudly: “The Chechen Republic is especially the internal business of Russia”. They sent to the Chechen Republic within 3 years before the war tens and hundreds of experts, searching for absolutely anything! And what was potential of arms, and what was the spirit of the people, and many – many other things so necessary for objective estimations… They – as against ours – have counted up everything. Scrupulous anatomic research of the western experts has given the precise forecast and recommendations to the leaders of these countries: “If Russia begins the war in the Chechen Republic, similarly to Afghanistan, it will get involved there for a long time. Two – three years are enough to undermine Russia economically; therefore it should be stimulated in every possible way.” – (from revelations of a colonel of the USA, military attache Harry Rubus, the employee of the embassy of the USA in Moscow). Subsequently, unfortunately, it happened.
So we have found out practically all circumstances initiated this war, and have highlighted resolutely everyone who was involved to some extent in the new Chechen adventure. Whether we can define the GUILTY at least now?
The human civilization for a thousand-year history of the hard development has realized one indisputable truth, the main dominant and an axiom of peace-making behavior in any war or in any conflict. In no event it is needed to search for the guilty beforehand. As a rule, this is a deadlock way. First of all, it is necessary to postpone any argues. In the beginning it is necessary with all accessible forces, means and opportunities to stop bloodshed, to stop military actions and to dissolve armies! Immediately to start process of peace settlement and to create conditions for no- resumption of the military actions, whoever would want it!
As far as the REASONS and PERSONS, on whom the destiny of war depends and may be thousand of not killed yet victims, they, I hope, now they are clear enough.
Naturally, we cannot practically influence the persons abroad. But, the houses are in the Russian territory; this destiny is in Yeltsin’s and Russian people’s hands now! Hopes that Yeltsin will stop this war – are minimal. Very seldom the criminal voluntary admits the criminal actions, but never operates in harm to him – almost never.
Yeltsin-tactics has now the unique strategic task to remain at the top of authority at any cost. All his present tactical actions are devoted and subordinated to this purpose.
So, what, all our peace hopes are useless? Apparently, yes!
Only a change of the political climate in Russia gives us some chances.
And, as far as the Chechen People are concerned, this un-subdued nation which has survived at many different emperors, unequivocally, not having obeyed, will go through Yeltsin as well.Moscow, March, 1996
The almanac “The Chechen Phenomenon” №1, April 1996