The Genocide of Chechen People in 1944 (Archive Documents)
February 23, 1944 is the most tragic date in the history of the Waynakh people. On that memorable day, according to the direct order of the Soviet head of state, Joseph Stalin the total deportation of the Chechen and Ingush people to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan began with the subsequent liquidation of the National Authority (Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic). All of the people were officially blamed for “treason and mass collaboration with the German fascists.”
This was declared despite the fact that “in 1941-1944, 40,000 Chechens fought in the Red Army,” and “450 people with arms in their hands fought against the Soviets” (according to Chechen historian Dalkhan Khozhaev, who was martyred [inshaAllah] in 2000).
In the eviction operation of the Chechens and Ingush (codenamed “Chechevitsa” [Lentil]), up to 20,000 operatives of the NKVD, NKGB, SMERSH participated, as well as 100,000 soldiers from army units. The commanders of the operation were the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs, the USSR Commissioner General of State Security Laurentius Pavlovich Beria, and his deputies, I.A. Serov, B.Z. Kabulov, and S.S. Mamulov.
The cruelty shown by Stalin’s henchmen during Operation “Chechevitsa (Lentil)” can be seen by the tragedy in the village of Khaibakh. Here, on February 27, more than 700 people (mostly ill old people, women, and children) from remote mountainous villages of Galanchozh district were burned to death. They were all preliminary gathered in collective farm stables (orders for this heinous crime were given by Beria and Serov).
According to Dalkhan Khozhaev, “out of 408,000 Chechen people, up to 250,000 people were killed in the eviction. That is 50 to 60% of the population.”
February 23, 1994, the 50th anniversary of the deportation of the Waynakh people, was the last day of grief and mourning for Chechens (Tezetan de – Тезетан де). Instead, the revival of the Chechen nation was established by the Decree of the President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (ChRI), Dzhoxar Dudaev (Noxchiyn k’am yuxamettax1ottaran de – Нохчийн къам юхаметтахIоттаран де).
But in the fall of 1994, the genocide of the Chechen people was continued in the form of the Russian-Chechen war, which was waged by the Kremlin under the slogan of “establishing the constitutional order” in the territory of the sovereign ChRI. Since the summer of 1999, the war entered its second phase, the so-called “anti-terrorist operation.” Putin’s genocide continued the legacy of Yeltsin’s genocide.
It is known that on February 26, 2004 (60 years after the expulsion), the Parliament of the European Union adopted a Declaration which formally recognized Stalin’s deportation of Waynakh people as genocide. But Yeltsin and Putin’s combined genocide of the Chechen people, which has also claimed at least 250,000 lives, continues to the present day, and the European Parliament is unlikely to recognize it as such in the foreseeable future. God forbid that it takes another 60 years.
Chechens have a saying: “Sih a ma lo, vits a ma lo” (“Do not hurry, but do not forget”). And on 4 carved the words: “Dölxur dats! Duxur dats! Dits a diyr dats!” (We will not Cry! We will not Forget! We will not Forgive!) are carved on one wall of the memorial in memory of the victims of the genocide of 1944 in Dzhoxar city. It is attributed to the first President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Dzhoxar Dudaev.
In this regard, we call our reader’s attention to some archival documents of the USSR and the CPSU (USSR Communist Party), related to the deportation of the Chechens and Ingush on February 23, 1944.
State Defense Committee
The GKO’s decree № 5074ss, January 31, 1944
The Kremlin, Moscow
State Defense Committee decided:
1. Oblige the Narkomzem (Land Commissariat) of the USSR (comrade Andreev) Narkommyasomolprom (Commissariat of Meat and Milk industry) of the USSR (comrade Smirnov), Narkomsovkhozov (Commissariat of collective farms) of the USSR (comrade Lobanov) and Narkomzag (Commissariat of procurements) (comrade Subbotin) to take at the North Caucasus from the special settlers, livestock and agricultural products in the places and the dates agreed upon with the NKVD USSR, with the issuance of the exchange receipts.
Perform adoption of the entire property, as well as calculations on this property with special settlers in accordance with the decision of People’s Commissars of the USSR from October 14, 1943 № 1118-842ss.
Oblige the People’s Commissariat of the USSR, Narkommyasomolprom USSR, Narkomzag and Narkomsovhozov USSR to prepare and send in dates, agreed with the NKVD, special groups with a sufficient number of workers and forms of exchange receipts on registration of receiving cattle and agricultural products from the special settlers.
2. Send to the North Caucasus for the organization and management of taking livestock, agricultural products and other property from special settlers the commission of SNK as follows: Chairman – Vice-Chairman of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR comrade Gritsenko and representatives: from the People’s Commissariat of the USSR – Deputy People’s Commissar comrade Penzin, from Narkommyasomolprom – member of the board comrade Nadyarnyh, from Narkomsovhozov USSR – Deputy People’s Commissar comrade Kabanov, from Narkomzag – member of the board comrade Pustovalov.
3. Oblige NKPS (comrade Kaganovich) to organize transportation of special settlers from the Northern Caucasus in the Kazakh SSR and Kirghiz SSR, form for this purpose special trains from the heating and equipped for human transport wagons.
The number of trains, deadlines for wagons giving, loading and unloading is at the request of the NKVD.
Payments for transportation are at the rate of transport of prisoners.
Oblige NKPS and TsUPVOSO (comrade Khrulev) to ensure the moving of trains to their destination on the rights of the military ones, with special dispatch to monitor their movement.
4. Oblige Narkomtorg (People’s Commissariat of Trade) of the USSR, under the personal responsibility of comrade Lyubimov, to ensure the supply of hot food and boiling water for passing trains with special settlers, in accordance with the schedule of trains movement, composed by the NKVD of the USSR and the People’s Commissariat.
Send, not later than 1 February, the senior representatives of Narkomtorg to the places on the path of movement of trains to carry out the organizational and preparatory work and check the preparedness of nutritional items and railway canteens to service trains with special settlers.
5. Oblige the People’s Commissariat of the USSR, under the personal responsibility of comrade Miterev, to ensure the provision for each train with special settlers, in time according with coordination with the NKVD, one doctor and two nurses with the stock of medicines and sanitation items, and also to prepare the points of sanitary treatment and insulators of the Narkomzdrav (People’s Commissariat of Health) on the path of the trains.
6. Oblige the General Directorate of State Material Reserves of the USSR under the Sovnarkom of the USSR (comrade Danchenko) to de-reserve from the state reserve 4000 tons of gasoline for the NKVD, 500 tons of gasoline for the SNK of the Kazakh SSR, and 150 tons for SNK Kirghizia for the special work.
Oblige Glavneftesnab (the Main Oil Supply service) under the Sovnarkom of the USSR (comrade Shirokov) in agreement with the NKVD, SNK of Kazakh SSR and SNK of Kirghiz SSR to ship gasoline to the points by special-purpose tanks in time – for the NKVD during February 1944 and for the SNK of Kazakh SSR and Kirghiz SSR – until February 15, 1944
7. Oblige the People’s Commissariat of the USSR (comrade Zverev) to release advance of $ 80 million rubles for the special work in February 1944 for NKVD from the reserve Sovnarkom.
Oblige the People’s Commissariat of the USSR (comrade Zverev), and the NKVD (comrade Chernyshov) to submit in 5-day period to the People’s Commissars of the USSR the joint proposal for an additional appropriation of funds for special work to the NKVD.
8. Oblige the People’s Commissariat of the USSR (comrade Andreev) to transfer to the NKVD for cavalry units of militia, 350 horses, fit for military service, received from the special settlers in the North Caucasus.
Vice Chairman of the National Defense Molotov
Sent to comrades Molotov, Malenkov, Beria, Voznesensky, Skvortsov, Undasynov, Bogdanov, Vagov, Kulatov, Pchelkin, Andreev, Benediktov, Kosygin, Smirnov, Lobanov, Subbotin, Gritsenko, Chadayev – all: Shamberg, Popov, Shatalin, Zverev, Genzin, Nadyarnyh, Kabanov (People’s Commissariat of State farms), Pustovalov, Kaganovich, Khrushchev, Izmailov, Golubev, Lyubimov, Miterev, Danchenko, Shirokov, Sokolov, Chernyshov – respectively.
27 Mernilov – NKGB – everything.
RTsHIDNI. F.644. Op.1. D.200. L.13-15.
State Defense Committee
To comrade Stalin
February 17, 1944
Preparation of the operation for eviction of Chechens and Ingushs finishes. After clarification, on 459 486 people to resettle are taken on the accountability, including those living in areas of Dagestan bordering with Chechnya-Ingushetia, and in Vladikavkaz city.
Given the scale of the operation and feature of the mountains, it was decided to conduct evictions (including boarding of people in the trains) during 8 days, when during the first 3 days the operation will be completed in the whole lowlands and pediments, and partly on some settlements in mountain areas, covering more than 300 thousand people.
In the remaining 4 days, the eviction of all mountain areas will be carried out, covering the remaining 150 thousand people.
Mountain areas will be blocked in advance…
In particular, in the eviction 6-7,000 Dagestanis, and 3,000 Ossetians from collective and state farms activists of Dagestan and North Ossetia districts, adjacent to Chechnya-Ingushetia, as well as rural activists among the Russians, in those areas where there are population, will participate.
Given the seriousness of the operation, please allow me to remain in place until the operation is complete, at least in general, i.e. up to 26-27 February, 1944
GARF. F.9401. Op.2. D.64. L.167.
State Defense Committee
To comrade Stalin
February 22, 1944
For a successful operation to evict the Chechens and Ingushs, following your instructions, in addition to KGB and troop activities the following is carried out:
1. It was reported to the chairman of People’s Commissars of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic Molaev about the government’s decision to evict the Chechens and the Ingushs and about the motives which are underlay this decision.
Molaev was in tears after my message, but pulled himself together and promised to fulfill all the tasks that he will be given in connection with the eviction. After it, in Grozny, in cooperation with him, nine executives from the Chechens and Ingushs have been identified and convened, who were informed about the eviction of Chechens and the Ingushs and the reasons for the eviction…
40 Party and Soviet workers from the Chechens and Ingushs were attached by us to the 24 districts with the task to select from local activists 2-3 people for propaganda for each locality.
The conversation with the most influential in the Chechen-Ingushetia senior clerics B. Arsanov, A.-G. Yandarov and A. Gaysumov was conducted, they were called to give the support through the mullahs and other local authorities.
… Eviction begins from dawn on February 23, this year, it was assumed to cordon off the regions to prevent the exit of the population from the territory of settlements. Population will be invited to the gathering, part of the gathering will be released for collecting things, and the rest will be disarmed and taken to places of loading. I believe that the operation to evict the Chechens and Ingushs will be held successfully.
GARF. F.R-9401. Op.2. D.64. L.166.
State Defense Committee
To comrade Stalin
February 26, 1944
The operation to evict the Chechens and Ingushs runs normally. By the evening of February 25 342 thousand 647 people are shipped in trains. 86 trains sent to the places of new settlement from the loading station.
GARF. F.R-9401. Op.2. D.64. L.160
From the report of the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR L. Beria
February 29, 1944
Preparations for the reception and resettlement of the special settlers in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic have been mostly completed on February, 25. Special settlers is being settled in the collective farms – 309 000 people, State farms – 42 000 people, in companies – 49 000 people. 1 590 cars, 57 thousands of wagons, 103 tractors are mobilized for delivery…
145 regional and 375 village NKVD special commandant’s offices arranged in the areas of the settlements with 1 358 people of staff.
GARF. F.R-9479. Op.1. D.182. L.62, 64.
From a letter to Secretary of Grozny Regional Committee of the RCP (b) P. Cheplakov to G.M.Malenkov
In February of 1944, 32 110 households of Chechens and Ingushs was deported to Central Asia from 11 districts of the former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic, joined the newly formed region of Grozny. By order of the CPC of the USSR on March 9, 1944, 6 800 households were resettled in specified areas of the Stavropol territory, 5,892 households of collective farmers from Grozny region (residents of Grozny ) were resettled in rural areas of the former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, and totally until May 15, 1944, in the village, inhabited by Chechens and Ingush, 12,692 families were moved in the villages, where Chechens and Ingushs lived, out of which 65 collective farms were organized. The number of people moved was 40% from the number of people deported. 22 villages remained unpopulated and 20 villages were occupied partially.
CHGNA. F.220. Op.1. D.26. L.113.
P. Cheplakov offered to resettle in the Grozny area another 5000 households from a separate land-poor areas of the Mordvin ASSR, Tambov, Penza, Ryazan, Ulyanovsk, Saratov, Gorki, Yaroslavl and other regions until October 1944.
State Defense Committee
To comrade Stalin
March 1, 1944
I report about the outcome of the operation of eviction of Chechens and Ingushs. Eviction was launched on February,23 in most areas, except for highland settlements.
To February 29, 478,479 people, including 91,250 Ingushs evacuated and loaded into trains. 180 trains are loaded, of which 159 trains had already been sent to the place of a new settlement.
Trains with former senior officials and religious authorities of the Chechen-Ingushetia, which were used during the operation, sent today.
6 thousand Chechens remain not evicted from some points of Galanchozh district because of the large snowfall and lack of roads, their transportation and loading will be completed in 2 days. The operation was held organized and without serious cases of resistance and other incidents.
…Combing of forest areas is also being conducted, where garrison troops of the NKVD and KGB operations group temporarily left. During the preparation and conduction of the operation, 2016 people of the anti-Soviet elements among the Chechens and the Ingushs are arrested. 20 072 units of firearms are seized, including 4 868 rifles, 479 machine guns and submachine guns.
GARF. F.R-9401. Op.2. D.64. L.161.
From the decision № 255-74ss
On the settling and development of the regions of the former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
March 9, 1944
In connection with the formation of Grozny district of the Stavropol Region at the territory of the former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic and the inclusion of the part of the regions of the former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic in Dagestan ASSR, North Ossetian Autonomous Republic and the Georgian SSR, SNK of the USSR decrees:
1. Oblige Stavropol Regional Executive Committee, SNK of Dagestan ASSR, the North Ossetian Autonomous Republic and the Georgian SSR:
a) until April 15, 1944, move in the former Chechen and Ingush collective farms: 800 farms in regions, included in the Grozny district of the Stavropol Region, from Dagestan ASSR 500 farms in the districts included in the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, from North Ossetian ASSR 500 farms in the districts included in North Ossetian Autonomous Republic;
b) complement by decision-makers in two weeks the regions transferred to them, in this period complete the acceptance of livestock, as well as all residential and commercial buildings, agricultural stock and other property.
2. Oblige the SNK of the RSFSR, Stavropol Regional Executive Committee, SNK of Dagestan ASSR, of North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, of Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic and Narkomzem of the USSR to develop measures for further settlement and development of areas of the former Chechen-Ingush ASSR and to make suggestions to the CPC of the USSR until June 1, 1944…
Deputy chairman of the SNK USSR V.Molotov
Manager of the affairs of the SNK of the USSR, People’s Commissar Ya. Chadaev
GARF. F.R-5446. Op.47. D.4356. L.59-62.
On formation of Grozny region of the RSFSR
(Decree from March 22, 1944)
Form the Grozny region with its center in the city of Grozny, and in connection with this eliminates Grozny and Kizlyar districts of Stavropol Region.
Include in Grozny region Grozny city and the following districts: Atagi, Achkhoi-Martan, Galanchozh, Galashki, Grozny, Gudermes, Nadterechny, Staro-Yurt, Sunzha, Urus-Martan, Shali and Shatoy of former Grozny district, the town of Kizlyar and districts: Achikulak, Karanogay, Kayasulin, Kizlyar and Shelkovskiy of former Kizlyar District, and also Naur district, separating it from the Stavropol region.
The present decision submit for the approval of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR
Report № 16, A.35.
Up to 300 thousand children under the age of 16 arrived as part of families of displaced Chechens, Ingushs, Karachays, Balkars, and Crimean Tatars in the Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Uzbek SSR in 1944. Special settlers are placed in small groups in the collective farms and mixed with local habitants – Russian, Kazakh, Uzbek and Kyrgyz population. They live under a special regime (the prohibition to move freely outside the points of settlement, etc.). It is impossible to organize a primary school for children of special settlers Chechens, Ingushs, Karachays, Balkars and Crimean Tatars with learning in their national languages due to lack of proven teaching staff. Because of all these conditions, NKVD considers to be appropriate to teach children of the special settlers in Russian language in the existing schools at their place of residence…
(Collected Laws of the RSFSR and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. 1938-1946 years. Publishing House “Proceedings of the Soviets of People’s Deputies of the USSR”, 1946. P.58).
The answer to the inquiry of the Chairman of NKVD in Grozny region Drozdov
How to deal with dismissal from the army and returning home Chechens and the Ingushs?
June 17, 1944
Head of Mobile directorate of the Main Direction Form of the Red Army № MOB 1/4069911-S from July 3, 1944, reported on the refusal of the head of NKVD of Grozny to take dismissed from the army sergeants and soldiers ethnic Chechens and Ingushs for the direction to their place of resettlement.
It was ordered to send all to disposal of the Head of NKVD of Taldy-Kurgan region of Kazakh SSR.
Produce the departure in separate groups by the passenger train under escort, providing a ticket and board, and 50 rubles of money.
GARF. F.R-9401. Op.1. D.2077-86. L.15.
From the memorandum of L. Beria
To comrade I.V. Stalin
To comrade V.M. Molotov (The Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR)
To Comrade G.M. Malenkov (Central Committee of the VKP(b))
To execute the regulation of the State Defense Committee of the NKVD in February-March 1944, 602 193 people, residents of the North Caucasus have been resettled permanently in the Kazakh and Kirgiz SSR, including Chechens and Ingushs – 496 460, Karachay – 68 327, Balkars – 37 406 people.
The relocation of this contingent from the North Caucasus and resettlement in new places of residence was carried out satisfactorily. 428,948 people are located in the collective farms, 64 703 people in state farms, 908 542 people are passed to an employment use in industrial facilities.
The main mass of the special settlers was evicted to the territory of the Kazakh SSR (477 809 people). However, the republican bodies of the Kazakh SSR did not pay adequate attention to issues of employment and economic arrangement of the special settlers of the North Caucasus. As a result, home arrangement of special settlers in Kazakhstan and their joining to the socially useful work is in poor condition. Families of special settlers, settled in the collective farms, were not accepted as members of agricultural artels. The allotment of families of special settlers by kitchen gardens and orchards passed unsatisfactorily, as well as housing. Special settlers settled in state farms and passed to industrial enterprises, weakly attracted to work in production, the disease typhus, shortcomings in economic and living conditions, theft, criminal offenses are marked.
To restore order, the Deputy People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs Kruglov with a group of workers was sent in the Kazakh SSR in May, 1944.
In July, 2196 special settlers were arrested for various crimes. All were considered by the Special Conference.
429 special commandant’s offices of the NKVD were created for monitoring of the special settlers living regime, for struggle against escapes, operational and KGB service and promoting rapid economic arrangement of special settler’s families.
Economic arrangement of the special settlers has been improved. Of the 70 296 families who settled in the collective farms, 56 800 families, or 81% became members of agricultural artels. 83 303 families (74.3%) got kitchen gardens and orchards.
12,683 families lived in their own homes. The work of child labor colonies was organized. In June 1944, 1 268 children was arranged in these colonies. Employment was improved. Thus, in Jambul region, of 16 927 people of working age, 16 396 people actually worked; in the Akmola region, of 17 667 people, 19 345 employees accounted (as in the document), of whom 2 746 are the elderly and teenagers.
GARF. F.R-9401. Op.2. D.63. L.311-313
To comrade Stalin I.V.
To comrade Molotov V.M.
To comrade Beria L.P.
To comrade Malenkov, G.M.
January 31, 1946
The majority of special settlers from the Northern Caucasus (Chechens, Ingushs, Karachays, Balkars) in an amount of 131 480 families (498 870 people) resettled in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, are economically arranged, and all able-bodied are involved in labor activities.
194 800 people of the total number of working age (205 000 people ) are employed in industry, construction and agriculture. The remaining 10 700 people do not work for valid reasons.
All special settlers are settled in the countryside. 81 450 families joined the collective farms.
55 260 families have received individual homes as the property through new construction and purchase of vacant premises in the local population. 47 930 families are settled in the workplace, in houses of enterprises, each family is supplied with free cattle and long-term loans. 4796 thousand rubles are allocated for these purposes. All special settlers are freed from obligatory deliveries of agricultural products and from the payment of agricultural and income taxes.
During two years, they were supplied with 33 965 tonnes of food grains, flour and cereals, 78 tonnes of sugar, 582 tonnes of steel.
Chechen Magomed Khutuev, kolkhoz member from collective farm “10 Years of October” of Jalal-Abad region of the Kirghiz SSR, said at the general meeting of farmers: “Thank you comrade Stalin, because he displays great care for us, special settlers. We are considered to be one family of the Soviet Union. We will participate in this election and vote for the candidates of our dear Communist Party…».
Mullah Aliyev, who lives on the collective farm of Jambul region of Sverdlovsk oblast, called the special settlers did not participate in the vote, justifying it by the fact that there are no representatives of Chechens and Ingushs among the candidates for deputies of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR…
People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR S.V. Kruglov
GARF. F.R-9401. Op.2. D.134. L.176-180.
Extract from the report № 66 from 1948
It was decided:
In order to strengthen the regime of settlements of deportees from among of the Chechens, Karachays, Ingushs, Balkars, Kalmyks, Germans, Crimean Tatars and others, as well as in order to increase criminal liability for the escape of deportees from the field of compulsory and permanent settlement of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) agrees:
1. Establish that the relocation of Chechens, Karachays, Ingushs, Balkars, Kalmyks, Germans, Crimean Tatars and others to remote areas of the Soviet Union made in perpetuity, without the right to return to their former places of residence.
Prosecute the people guilty of unauthorized leave (escape) from the sites of compulsory settlement of these deportees to, determining the punishment for this crime in 20 years’ imprisonment.
Consider cases against the shoots of deportees at the Special Conference of the MIA of the USSR.
Prosecute those responsible for harboring the deportees who had escaped from places of compulsory settlement or contributed to their escape, and those responsible for permitting the deportees to return to their former places of residence, determining the punishment for these offenses as imprisonment for 5 years.
(Draft Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR is attached – Appendix № 1).
2. Oblige the Ministry of Internal Affairs (comrade Kruglov) and Attorney General of the USSR (comrade Safonov) to arrest and prosecute all the deportees detained for running away from the field of mandatory resettlement, as well as those guilty of escape, of harboring the deportees and persons assisting them in settling in their former places of residence, with consideration of the cases at the Special Conference of the MIA of the USSR, strictly guided by this decision.
3. Extend to the deportees (Chechens, Karachays, Ingushs, Balkars, Kalmyks, Germans, Crimean Tatars and others) the item 12 of the Decree of Council of Ministers of the USSR № 1841-730s from June, 3, 1948 about the prosecution and conviction to 8 years imprisonment those exiled to (special) settlement and continuing to evade from socially useful work and leading a parasitic life in the places of settlement.
4. Oblige the Ministry of Internal Affairs (comrade Kruglov) to check the work of local organs of the Ministry of the Interior for implement of the administrative monitoring of the deportees within a month, particularly in proper accounting of the settlers and the support of the regime precluding the possibility of escapes.
Based on the verification, take the necessary measures and report the results to the CC (Central Committee) of the CPSU (b).
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR – establish further strict control for the work of their local authorities to provide the necessary regime in places of resettlement of deportees.
5. Oblige the Ministry of State Security (comrade Abakumov) to take measures through the organs of the MGB in rail and water transport for identification, arrest and detention of deportees who had escaped from the field of compulsory settlement.
6. Oblige the Attorney General of the USSR comrade Safonov and Minister of Internal Affairs comrade Kruglov to investigate all cases when the deportees, detained in the areas of their former residence (the Crimea, the Chechen-Ingushetia, Kabarda, the area of the Volga Germans, Kalmykia, etc.), were returned to their places of resettlement without recourse to criminal liability for the escape, and attract to strict liability those who responsible for approval of this anti-government practices. Report the results within a month to the CPSU (b).
(See Appendix number 2).
Secretary of the CC
5-p, st, ak
Decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR № 4367-1726ss of 24.XI.1948
To comrade Malenkov G.M.
On behalf of the Bureau of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee, we considered the note of comrades Ganenko and Alatortsev on employment and living conditions and state of political and educational work among the special settlers living in the Kazakh and Uzbek SSR, Krasnoyarsk, Kemerovo and Molotov areas…
We would consider it appropriate to adopt a resolution of the CPSU Central Committee on improving the political work among the special settlers (draft attached).
However, we would consider it necessary to instruct a group of employees to consider and report to the Central Committee the proposals on the reasonability of further conservation in its entirety of the legal restrictions on the special settlers – Germans, Karachays, Chechens, Ingushs, Balkars, Kalmyks and Crimean Tatars, which were established at one time by the Resolution of the Council of People’s Commissars on January 8, 1945, and the Council of Ministers on 24 November, 1948
About 10 years passed since the resettlement of Germans, Karachays, Chechens, Ingushs, Balkars, Kalmyks and Crimean Tatars. During this time, the majority of them settled in the new place of residence, employed, conscientiously work at enterprises, collective and state farms. Meanwhile, initially established strict regime on the movement of special settlers in the areas of settlement remains unchanged.
For example, special settler’s absence without permission outside the area served by the special commandant’s office (sometimes limited to the few streets in the city and village council in rural areas), is regarded as an escape and entails the responsibility of a criminal offense. We believe that currently there is no need to save these serious limitations.
M. Suslov, P. Pospelov, K. Gorshenin, A. Shelepin, A. Gorkin
” ” April, 1953
Without publication in the press
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR
On the removal of restrictions on the special settlements from Chechens, Ingushs, Karachays and their families who were evicted during the Great Patriotic War.
Given that the existing restrictions on the legal status of being in special settlements Chechens, Ingushs, Karachays and their families who were evicted during the Great Patriotic War from the North Caucasus, are not needed in the future, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR decrees:
1. Deregister at special settlements and release from under the administrative supervision of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR the Chechens, Ingushs, Karachays and their families who were evicted to special settlement during the Great Patriotic War.
2. Establish that the removal of the special settlement restrictions from the persons listed in the article first of the present Order, does not entail the return of property confiscated during the eviction, and that they have no right to return to places where they had been evicted from.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR K. Voroshilov
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR N. Pegov
The Kremlin, Moscow
July 16, 1956
On the situation of the Chechen and Ingush population
In February 1944, more than 496 000 Chechens and Ingushs were evicted from the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, including 411 thousand people (85 000 families) – in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, and 85.5 thousand people (20 000 families) in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic. Currently 315,000 Chechens and Ingushs live in Kazakhstan and about 80 thousand people in Kyrgyzstan.
The main mass of the Chechen-Ingush population is employed and regard the work honestly. Of the 244 thousand people, 155 000 adults are working, or 63.5 percent. 38.3 thousand are employed in the industry, 91.6 thousand in agriculture, 25 thousand people in various organizations and institutions.
The acquaintance at place revealed that the majority of Chechens and Ingushs live not worse than in the North Caucasus, have their own houses, cows and poultry. However, in interviews, many Chechens and Ingushs complained that they were not allowed to return to their former places of residence and urged to allow them the exit to the North Caucasus. After the de-registration of the special settlements, more than 6 000 people of them returned to the territory of the former autonomous republic.
The former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic had 23 rural districts. After the abolition of the republic, 11 districts went to Grozny region, 6 districts – to the Dagestan ASSR, 5 districts – to the North Ossetian Autonomous Republic and one district – to the Georgian SSR. According to the 1939 census, 731.7 thousand people inhabited in those areas. Currently, there are 512.2 thousand people, including 180 000 displaced.
On the possible return of Chechens and Ingushs to their former places of residence of Grozny, Dagestan and North Ossetia oblast committees are negative, justifying it by the fact that economic opportunity of the areas of the former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic does not allow them to employ and to settle. Undesirability of the return of Chechens and Ingushs also is justified by the Party and Soviet workers by the fact that some of them proven wrong in the past and now.
E. Gromov, V. Churaev
November 14, 1956
From a letter of the Secretary of the Organizing Committee of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic Komarov addressed to the Secretary of the Chechen-Ingush regional committee of the CPSU G.F. Cherkevich
September 25, 1957
In the spring of 1957, 140 thousand of Chechens and Ingushs returned to the republic, the part of nationals of Dagestan and Ossetia moved into their republics.
CHGNA. F.1. Op.1. D.1837. L.4-5
*Text was translated by Aminat for Waynakh Online and edited by Michael Capobianco